|Tài Liệu Lịch Sử - Lịch Sử Cận Đại|
|Written by http://www.worldstatesmen.org/AUTHOR.html.|
|Wednesday, 28 March 2018 03:49|
Note: Although the monarchy dealt with imperial China as a tributary state, and the ruler was addressed by the imperial court as "king of An Nam," domestically a full imperial system was established, including era names. The information listed here (there sometimes is even more available) is as follows: personal name (ho [family name] + huy [tabooed personal name]) followed by temple name (mieu hieu), posthumous style (dang ton hieu), and era name(s) (nien hieu) initiated during the respective reign; some emperors are often referred to by the nien hieu (e.g., the Bao Dai emperor).
Chief ministers of the Supreme Privy Council
Note: The Trinh family ruled the North from the imperial capital at or near present-day Hanoi; the Nguyen (properly Nguyen Phuoc) family ruled the South (present-day Center) from their capital at or near present-day Hue. The official style of each ruler is chua, but the Trinh
Note: The rule by this family (family name Nguyen, changed from Ho) begins in 1776 in the Central part of the country, restricting the imperial Le line to a small area. On 22 Dec 1788
Ruler (title Vuong; from 1778, Thien Vuong; from Jun 1787, Trung Uong Hoang De)
Note: Vietnamese sources on Champa dry up at the end of the 17th century. The royal chronicle of Pangdarang (Pali: Panduranga) claims that the polity of this name is the true continuation of Champa, and there is some meager evidence that that is the case, at least for the final portion of the chronicle (which claims to deal with events beginning in 1000).
192 AD Champa Kingdom founded in the southern part of modern day Vietnam.
16 Jun 1702 British East India company founds post on the island
Heads of the Japanese Delegation to French Indochina
French Chargés d'Affaires (at Hué)
Residents-superior (at Hué)
Vietnamese Crown Representatives (Kinh Luoc Bac Ky) for Tonkin
1689 Annexed by Annam from Cambodia.
Commander-in-Chief of the Naval Division of Réunion and Indochina, and Commander-in
President of the Council of the South
1 Jun 1946 Republic of Cochinchina (literally, "Republic of the Southern
Chairman of the Provisional Government
Chief of the Provisory Government
Commanders of U.S. Military Assistance Command in Vietnam (MACV)
Party abbreviations: CL = Can Lao Nhan Vi Cach Mang Dang (Personalist Labor Revolutionary Party, "Can Lao", personalist, anti-communist, 1954-1963); DC = Dan Chu Dang (Democratic Party, 1973-1975); DLH = Dan Lap Hien/Parti Constitutionnaliste (Constitutional Party, 1923-1939); DVP = Dai-Viet Quoc Dan Dang (Nationalist Party of Greater Vietnam, "Dai Viet", nationalist, anti-communist, 1939-1975); IDP = Parti Democrate Indochinois (Indochinese Democratic Party, 1937-1947); NLF = Mat tran Dan toc Giai phong mien Nam Viet Nam (National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, "Vietcong", communist, 1960-1977); NRF = Luc Luong Hoa Giai Hoa Hop Dan Toc (National Reconciliation Force, pacificist, Buddhist, 1974-1975); NRM = Phong Trao Cach Mang Quoc (National Revolutionary Movement, pro-Dinh Diem party, 1954-1963); NSDF = National Social Democratic Front (anti-communist, center-right, Nguyen Van Thieu led coalition of 6 parties: Greater Union Force, Social Humanist Party [successor to CL], Revolutionary Dai Viet, the Social Democratic Party, United Vietnam Kuomintang, and People's Alliance for Social Revolution, 1968-1975); VNQ = Viet-Nam Quoc Dan Dang (Vietnam Nationalist Party, "Viet Quoc", democratic socialist, 1927-1975); VPDH = Viet-Nam Phục quoc Dong minh Hoi (League for the National Restoration of Vietnam, constitutional monarchist, 1939-1951); VQD = Viet-Nam Quoc gia Doc lap Dang (Vietnam National Independence Party, Vietnamese nationalist,10 Mar 1945 - Aug 1945); Mil = Military
8 Jun 1969 Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of
Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Government
Chairman of the Presidium of the Consultative Council
Party abbreviation: NLF = Mat tran Dan toc Giai phong mien Nam Viet Nam (National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, "Vietcong", South Vietname insurgent communist, 1960-1977)
30 Aug 1945 Democratic Republic of Vietnam proclaimed.
Chairman of the Central Committee of the Indochinese Communist Party
Chairman of the Provisional Government
Party abbreviation: DCSV = Dang Cong san Viet-Nam (Communist Party of Vietnam, Marxist-Lenninst communist, only legal party in North Vietnam; original name Vietnamese Communist Party [Dang Cong san Viet Nam][DCSV] Feb 1930-Oct 1930, successive names were: Indochinese Communist Party [Dong Duong Cong san Dang][DCSD], Oct 1930-Feb 1951, which was officially dissolved 11 Nov 1945 and merged into League for the Independence of Vietnam [Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh Hoi] "Viet Minh", although DCSD continued in secret to 1951; Vietnam Workers's Party [Dang Lao Dong Viet Nam][DLDV] Feb 1951-Dec 1976; and from 20 Dec 1976 renamed DCSV)
First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Vietnam Workers' Party
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
Territorial Disputes: Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area and establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; an estimated 300,000 Vietnamese refugees reside in China; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; China occupies the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending beyond as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in Mar 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Economic Exclusion Zone negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary.
Party abbreviation: DCSV = Dang Cong san Viet Nam (Communist Party of Vietnam, communist,